Skin & Hair Glossary of Ingredients & Terms. Defining what skin & hair ingredients are & how to best use them. Updated regularly.
- Rapeseed Oil
- Rapeseed Oil comes from a yellow flower cultivated mainly for its’ oil-rich seed.
It is an anti-oxidant that preserves skin moisture. it makes skin smooth and elastic. It also cleanses pores and gives skin a natural glow. Its’ anti-inflammatory properties heal skin and reduce redness.
- Red Algae
- Red Algae enhances the skin’s barrier function, replenishes moisture, and increases its moisture-retention capabilities.
- Red Rose Wine
- Red Rose Wine thickens skin, especially useful around the eyes and mouth. Reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
- Reishi Extract is also called Ganoderma, Asian Mushroom Extract or lingzhi. This kidney-shaped mushroom has been used for centuries in traditional medicinal practice and is known as “mushroom of immortality”. It is used in some topical anti-aging products for both skin and hair. It contains polysaccharides. These are responsible for the skin’s natural ability to hydrate and retain water. It also promotes cell regeneration while reducing skin inflammation, puffiness, and wrinkles.
- Renovage slows down the premature aging of cells. It operates on a deeper level of skin issues. Renovage fixes deep skin layer problems that surface serums and creams can’t reach. These issues include lightening over-pigmentation, reducing redness and improving skin firmness.
- Resveratrol is a polyphenol that functions as an antioxidant. It is found in 70 plant based foods including grapes, mulberries, and peanuts, and to a lesser degree within red wine. It is a skincare staple because it reverses aged (senescent) cells to a physically younger, active state. It has oral and topical benefits but poor bioavailability. 
- Retinol is a vitamin A derivative found in many skincare creams. It is commonly applied at night and refines the skin’s texture by causing rapid cell turnover. Softens wrinkles and reduces acne. An over-the-counter version of Retinoid.
- A prescription brand name Retinoid, generally with a stronger percentage than available over the counter.
- Topical retinoids are the strongest topical ingredients in a dermatologist’s arsenal for slowing signs of aging. Everyone in his or her thirties or beyond should get in the habit of incorporating a topical retinoid cream in their evening routine.
- Retinyl Palmitate
- Retinyl Palmitate is an antioxidant found naturally in our skin. Retinyl Palmitate is a natural form of Vitamin A that helps with wrinkles and fine lines. It also boosts collagen production to make skin look younger and plumper. It promotes cell regeneration.
- Rice Bran Oil
- Rice Bran Oil is a gentle anti-inflammatory oil that promotes hydration. It is a vital source of vitamins A, B2, B1, squalene and two types of Vitamin E. This combo can hydrate, heal and soften skin while making scars and burns more pliable. It is high in fatty acids including Omega 6 and 9, both of which give skin a healthy glow. It is rich in ferulic acid (used in facial creams to support Vitamin C), plus inositol and gamma oryzanol, anti-oxidants and nourishing moisturizers.  Rice bran oil evens out skin tone and reduces dark spots.  It is excellent for tackling fine lines and wrinkles  that often belie age on shoulders, arms, and legs.
- Rooibos is an anti-inflammatory for the skin. It is applied as a topical ingredient and consumed as a fruity tea.
- Rose Absolute
- Rose Absolute rejuvenates and firms skin.
- Rose powder adds fragrance as well as softens hair.
- Rosa Rugosa
- Rosa Rugosa flower extract is rich in vitamin C, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, and carotene. It promotes collagen production and reduces enlarged pores. It also makes the skin exceptionally smooth while removing excess inflammation.
- A skin condition that causes redness and puffiness on the face, including cheeks and nose. Rosacea requires gentle measures in cleansing and product use.
Rosehip Seed Oil
- Rosehip Seed Oil is high in Vitamins A, C, and E. They provide nutrients, fade acne scars and promote cell turnover. Rose Hip Seed Oil is a Vitamin C variant that is both a treatment and a hydrating ingredient. It offers the benefits of Vitamin C and Retinol serums such as lightening dark spots but without causing irritation. Rosehip oil also has omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids to soothe and moisturize eczema or dry skin.  There is generally a strong scent.
- Rosemary Extract, ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS EXTRACT
- Rosemary Extract combats dry skin. It naturally protects skin from sun damage and free radicals. It also has natural antiseptic properties and is a gentle exfoliant for dead skin flakes. Rosemary Extract is soothing and helps reduce puffiness and lightens dark spots. It is stimulating and promotes better blood circulation to deliver the nutrients necessary to build collagen, elastin and to encourage scar repair.
- Rosemary Oil
- Rosemary Oil combats dry skin including dandruff. It naturally protects skin from sun damage and free radicals. It also has natural antiseptic properties. Research shows massaging the scalp for six months with Rosemary and Jojoba Oil is as effective as Minoxidil at regrowing hair. Another study found the 12-methoxycarnosic acid in Rosemary Extract a promising crude drug for treating male pattern baldness caused by 5α-reductase inhibition, or the testosterone conversion to DHT on the scalp. The study concluded “These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors”. 
- Royal Jelly
- Royal Jelly is a gelatinous bee product made to feed the queen bee. It is anti-inflammatory anti-oxidant which is filled with skin-friendly nutrients. It smooths fine lines and wrinkles. It also helps with wound healing  and skin repair.  Royal Jelly combats sun damage and can promote procollagen type I production. 
- Salehi, Bahare et al. “Resveratrol: A Double-Edged Sword in Health Benefits.” Biomedicines vol. 6,3 91. 9 Sep. 2018, doi:10.3390/biomedicines6030091
- Coppini, D.; Paganizzi, P.; Santi, P.; Ghirardini, A. Capacitá protettiva nei confronti delle radiazioni solari di derivati di origine vegetable. Cosm. News 2001, 136, 15–20. [Google Scholar]
- Marto, Joana; Neves, Ângela; Gonçalves, Lídia M.; Pinto, Pedro; Almeida, Cristina; Simões, Sandra. 2018. “Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with Anti-Aging Efficacy.” Cosmetics 5, no. 2: 26.
- Rigo, L.A.; da Silva, C.R.; de Oliveira, S.M.; Cabreira, T.N.; de Bona da Silva, C.; Ferreira, J.; Beck, R.C. Nanoencapsulation of rice bran oil increases its protective effects against UVB radiation-induced skin injury in mice. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 2015, 93, 11–17.
- Grajzer, Magdalena, et al. “Characteristics of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) cold-pressed oil and its oxidative stability studied by the differential scanning calorimetry method.” Food chemistry 188 (2015): 459-466.
- Panahi Y. et al, “Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment f androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial.” Skinmed. 2015 Jan-Feb;13(1):15-21.
- Murata K, Noguchi K, Kondo M, et al. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract. Phytother Res. 2013;27(2):212–217. doi:10.1002/ptr.4712
- Bucekova M, Sojka M, Valachova I, et al. Bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1, promotes wound re-epithelialization in vitro and in vivo. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):7340. Published 2017 Aug 4. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07494-0
- Park HM, Cho MH, Cho Y, Kim SY. Royal jelly increases collagen production in rat skin after ovariectomy. J Med Food. 2012;15(6):568–575. doi:10.1089/jmf.2011.1888
- Park HM, Hwang E, Lee KG, Han SM, Cho Y, Kim SY. Royal jelly protects against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts via enhancing collagen production. J Med Food. 2011;14(9):899–906. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.1363