Definition guide of skin and hair terms. We define skin & hair terms for effective ingredients that get results. Updated regularly.
- C (Vitamin, Serum)
- Vitamin C in food and supplement form supports immune system health and new cell production, including skin and hair. Vitamin C is applied topically for targeted skin-rejuvenation. It is an anti-aging, acne reducing, dark pigmentation fading powerhouse. Vitamin C is a building block for collagen, the support structure of the skin. Vitamin C also fades acne scars and improves sun-damaged skin texture. Best use is applying Vitamin C serum daily and Retinol at night.
- C Ester
- C Ester is a potent, pure and stable form of Vitamin C that is less acidic than other Vitamin C variants. It does not cause as much irritation and redness as other forms of C. It is the recommended form for an oral C supplement and for skin application. The ingredient label may refer to it as C Ester or Ascorbyl Palmitate.
- Caffeine is common in eye and cellulite creams as it reduces puffiness and inflammation. Caffeine has antioxidant properties and slows down photoaging. On the scalp, Caffeine encourages blood flow to nourish follicles and encourage healthy growth. Caffeine can be drying to the skin if it is not paired with adequate moisturizing products.
- Calcium supplements maintain healthy bones, posture, intracellular signaling, and hormonal secretion. Frequently seen within multi-vitamins.
- Calendula Extract
- Calendula Extract comes from the Calendula flower. Calendula promotes the regeneration of new tissue and soothes damaged skin.
- Camellia Japonica
- Camellia Japonica is also known as Japanese Camellia or tsubaki. It is the authentic Japanese Camellia seen in brands like Tatcha and SK-II. Originally known as an ancient Japanese beauty secret used by Geishas for high shine in hair and optimal skin care. All camellia variants help skin, but Camilla japonica oil is the real deal.An excellent antioxidant and moisturizer, Camellia japonica oil is rich in Omega 9. Omega 9 helps the skin retain hydration. Camellia japonica oil also contains polyphenols, vitamins A, D, C, and E. This non-comedogenic oil promotes skin elasticity. This variant of Camellia oil (Japonica) is more difficult to obtain but worth the effort. It the most effective at transdermal collagen and elastin delivery.
Camellia Oleifera Seed Oil
- Camellia Oleifera Seed Oil smooths rough skin patches and repairs the skin barrier. It also smoothes hair in a conditioner or leave-in serum.
- Camelia Sinensis
- Camelia Sinensis is the leaves of green and white tea. It is beneficial as a beverage and when applied topically to skin and hair. It is gentle yet powerful. It contains phenols and EGCG. As a topical ingredient, it evens the skin tone. It is anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. It reduces redness and inflammation around the delicate eye area. White tea also contains EGCG, which enables the production of new cells in the epidermis . It contains phenols to strengthen collagen and elastin. This gives skin a bouncy, younger look while delaying wrinkles.
- Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
- Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride is one of the cleanest ingredients with no reported toxicity, it is safe enough to be food grade. Capric Triglyceride naturally occurs in palm kernel or coconut oil. It is a mixed ester composed of caprylic and capric fatty acids attached to glycerin. Caprylic/capric triglyceride is a natural skin replenishing emollient that creates a barrier on the skin’s surface, which helps to reduce skin dryness by decreasing the loss of moisture.  It can make greasy ingredients leave a non-greasy finish. A gentle ingredient. Caprylic/capric triglyceride creates a barrier on the skin’s surface to reduce moisture loss and address dryness.
Castor Seed Oil
- Castor Seed Oil is a humectant that moisturizes hair and skin. It reduces inflammation, heals scars and hydrates. Castor Seed Oil is rich in vitamins and fatty acids to nourish both hair and scalp. Castor Seed Oil has been used to promote hair growth. No scientific studies to date correlate Castor Oil with hair regrowth or stop loss. Castor Seed Oil does help barriers to hair growth such as scalp infection, chronically dry scalps, or other scalp inflammation. Castor Seed Oil temporarily plumps the hair with moisture for a fuller and healthier look. It also gives hair more flexibility, protecting new hairs and existing brittle hair. Castor Oil calms frizzy hair and is useful for eyelash growth and conditioning.
- Caulpera Lentilifera
- Caulpera Lentilifera (Green Algae) Extract is an edible seaweed known as sea grapes or green caviar. It is high in minerals with reported anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties. Caulpera Lentilifera contains fucoidan. Fucoidan promotes fibroblast cell production. Fibroblast cells produce collagen and promote wound healing. Fucoidan renews and brightens the skin while reducing wrinkle depth and skin spot intensity.  Caulpera Lentilifera contains Alginic acids to strengthen the lipid barrier, retain hydration and elasticity. Sea Grapes are also rich in amino acids for glowing, supple skin.
- Cedarwood Extract
- Cedarwood extract is derived from the needles, leaves, bark, and berries of cedar trees. Cedarwood reduces hair loss by balancing oil production. It also has antifungal and antibacterial properties to keep the scalp healthy. A double-blind, evidence-based method study showed a mix of lavender, rosemary, and cedarwood extract reduced hair loss significantly amongst alopecia areata patients. 
- Cehami is a humectant, filling the skin with moisture. It is an extract from an Australian daisy. It is an effective anti-itch analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and cellular regeneration accelerant. Cehami makes skin look healthier and younger.
- Cellulose is found in volumizing shampoos to temporarily plump the texture of hair strands.
- Centella Asiatica extract
- Centella asiatica extract is better known as Gotu Kola. Gotu Kola is especially good at improving elasticity and reduce sagging. It boosts antioxidant activity, strengthenings the skin and increases blood circulation. 
- Ceramides are the fatty acids that help to hold cells together and protect the epidermis. Natural ceramides deplete with age or due to excessive stripping of the natural skin oils.
- Ceramide-2 is one of the ceramides that hold the lipid barrier which protects the skin. We are born with enough ceramides but lose them with age or sometimes with overly harsh facial washing. Ceramide-2 is used for its’ ability to moisturize and hold moisture in the skin.
- Ceramide-3 is an excellent moisturizing agent, highly useful as a buffer for potent actives. Trihydroxypalmitamidohydroxypropyl Myristyl Ether, AKA Ceramide-3, keeps skin hydrated without being greasy. Ceramide-3 enhances the smooth product finish while repairing the skin barrier. Ceramide-3 keeps skin hydrated without being greasy.
- Certified Organic
- Certified Organic is when an Organic Certification Body or organization verifies that an ingredient was grown, prepared, processed and packaged without the use of synthetic fertilizers or chemicals.
- Chaga mushroom is anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. It is a natural adaptogen traditionally used in folk and medicine. It provides environmental and stress-protection to the skin, including oxidative stress.  It is packed with dismutase and zinc. Zinc eases acne and reduces inflammation and irritation. 
- Chamomile is an antioxidant with potent skin-soothing action.  It contains Terpenoids, bisabolol and chamazulene. Chamomile Extract is excellent in a formulation with powerful actives because it contains flavones. These flavones inhibit the production of inflammation, even in deeper skin layers.  Meanwhile, The apigenin in Chamomile protects the skin barrier. . This gentle and hypoallergenic extract soothes skin, heals burns, and is great for helping skin recover and benefit from chemical peels. Chamomile Extract also kills acne-causing bacteria while soothing the skin. 
- Chamomile also benefits hair. Chamomile oil can moisturize damaged hair.  It is also an anti-inflammatory to treat some scalp conditions that impact hair growth. It is an anti fungal which reduces dandruff.  Chamomile tea can be used to enhance and brighten tone on blondes or natural blonde highlights.
- Chia Seed Oil
- Chia Seed Oil feeds hair and skin. It makes hair shiny and strong, and skin smooth. It contains alpha-linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid, vitamins, and minerals.
- Chicory Root Extract
- Chicory Root Extract, also known as Cichorium Intybus, firms wrinkles, restores elasticity and fights signs of photo-aging.
- Choline is found in some beauty and prenatal supplements. Choline helps the body create DNA for nerve signaling, and for detoxification. It’s also used for acetylcholine function, and it is an anti-aging neurotransmitter.
Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil
- Orange Peel has more Vitamin C than the fleshly orange fruit, almost double. It improves collagen production resulting in the reduction of dark spots and wrinkles. It fights free radicals, removes blackheads and acne, and reduces wrinkles. Orange peel is also an antioxidant that reduces inflammation. The bacteria-fighting and inflammation reduction properties reduce acne without excess skin drying. A citrus oil with a refreshing or neutralizing scent.
- Citrus Stem Cells
- Citrus Stem Cells protect skin from oxidative stress and help reverse skin damage.
- Clary Sage
- Clary sage strengthens the skin while balancing excess sebum. It calms and rejuvenates the skin in a manner similar to lavender but it does not contain lavender’s potentially overpowering scent or some of the potential skin irritants within lavender. It contains linalyl acetate, an anti-inflammatory that heals skin irritation.
- Cloudberries are a rare nordic berry.
Cloudberries are rich in Polyphenol extracts, Omegas 3 and 6, and Vitamin E and C.  Cloudberry contains four times more Vitamin C than an orange. Cloudberry builds collagen, fights off attacks on collagen, reduces wrinkles and hydrates. It is well suited for sensitive skin or even skin conditions like eczema.
- Jung, E. et al. Effect of Camellia japonica oil on human type I procollagen production and skin barrier function. Journal of ethnopharmacology 112.1, 127-131 (2007)
- Food and Chemical Toxicology, January 2000, issue 1, pages 79-96
- Hay IC, Jamieson M, Ormerod AD. “Randomized trial of aromatherapy. Successful treatment for alopecia areata.” Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(11):1349–1352. doi:10.1001/archderm.134.11.1349
- Fitton JH, Dell’Acqua G, Gardiner V-A, Karpiniec SS, Stringer DN, Davis E. Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich Extracts from Marine Macroalgae. Cosmetics. 2015; 2(2):66-81.
- Camera E., Mastrofrancesco A., Fabbri C., Daubrawa F., Picardo M., Sies H., Stahl W. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes. Exp. Dermatol. 2009;18:222–231. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00790.x.
- Gohil, Kashmira J et al. “Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all.” Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences vol. 72,5 (2010): 546-56. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.78519
- Panossian, Alexander, and Georg Wikman. “Effects of Adaptogens on the Central NervousSystem and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress-Protective Activity.” Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 3,1 188-224. 19 Jan. 2010, doi:10.3390/ph3010188
- Gupta, Mrinal et al. “Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review.” Dermatology research and practice vol. 2014 (2014): 709152. doi:10.1155/2014/709152
- Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, January 2009, pages 404
- Merfort I, Heilmann J, Hagedorn-Leweke U, Lippold BC. In vivo skin penetration studies of camomile flavones. Pharmazie. 1994;49(7):509–511.
- Hou M, Sun R, Hupe M, et al. Topical apigenin improves epidermal permeability barrier homoeostasis in normal murine skin by divergent mechanisms. Exp Dermatol. 2013;22(3):210–215. doi:10.1111/exd.12102
- Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, January 2009, pages 404
- Srivastava, Janmejai K et al. “Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.” Molecular medicine reports vol. 3,6 (2010): 895-901. doi:10.3892/mmr.2010.377
- Srivastava, Janmejai K, and Sanjay Gupta. “Extraction, Characterization, Stability and Biological Activity of Flavonoids Isolated from Chamomile Flowers.” Molecular and cellular pharmacology vol. 1,3 (2009): 138. doi:10.4255/mcpharmacol.09.18
- Peana AT, D’Aquila PS, Panin F, Serra G, Pippia P, Moretti MD. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(8):721–726. doi:10.1078/094471102321621322
- Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, January 2009, pages 36-B (2003). “Rubus chamaemorusL. – a boreal plant rich in biologically active metabolites: a review”. Biological Letters. 40 (1): 3–13.